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The overriding objective of the International Association of Constitutional Law (IACL) is to provide a forum in which constitutionalists from all parts of the world can begin to understand each other’s systems, explain and reflect on their own, and engage in fruitful comparison, for a variety of purposes.

In line with the aims of the IACL, the purpose of this blog is to provide a forum for constitutional conversations that is truly global, that serves our membership, and that carries on the conversations sparked at our IACL roundtable meetings and 4-yearly Congress. See our Mission Statement for more detail.


The specific aims of the Association Include:

  • To develop a network of constitutionalists from countries throughout the world.
  • To provide a forum for the exchange of knowledge and information about constitutional systems.
  • To examine and compare common constitutional issues and phenomena.
  • To anticipate new issues and identify approaches which might be taken to them.
  • To offer a pool of experts from which teams might be constructed to examine and provide advice on particular issues.


In the last thirty years, new constitutional systems have been developed in all parts of the world. At the same time, more established constitutional systems are facing unprecedented challenges, many of which are associated with the new global order. Despite the great differences between countries and systems, it is apparent that constitutional scholars and jurists throughout the world are grappling with many comparable problems. These include, for example, the manner of enforcement of fundamental rights (particularly the ‘second generation’ of social and economic rights), and the challenges posed by 9/11 and its aftermath to our understanding of the role and value of human rights. The growing number of judicial decisions at the supra-national and international levels also raises new questions for domestic constitutional systems, which are only just beginning to be tackled.

The degree of difference between constitutional systems depends of course on the history, culture and legal tradition of the countries concerned. The overriding objective of the IACL is to provide a forum in which constitutionalists from all parts of the world can begin to understand each other’s systems, explain and reflect on their own, and engage in fruitful comparison, for a variety of purposes. To this end, the Association endeavours to ensure that its processes and activities are suited to its diverse membership, whilst at the same time retaining the scientific and scholarly approach on which the credibility of its work depends.


The principal organ of the IACL is the Council, which consists of delegates of the transnational, national and sub-national associations and the scientific institutes that are members of the IACL. The Council usually meets every four years at the time of the World Congress of the IACL, but may be summoned between Congresses on the initiative of the Executive Committee.

At its regular quadrennial meeting, the Council elects the Executive of the Association, which consists of:

  • the President
  • the Secretary-General
  • the Deputy-Secretary General
  • the Vice-Presidents and
  • the members of the Executive Committee.

At its meeting in Oslo, Norway, on 18 June 2014, the Council of the IACL elected the following persons as members of the Executive Committee for a period of four years.

Executive Committee of the IACL 2014-2018


Manuel José Cepeda-Espinosa (Colombia)
Professor, Faculty of Law, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.

First Vice-president

Adrienne Stone (Australia)
Director, Centre for Comparative Constitutional Studies, Faculty of Law, University of Melbourne, Australia.


Nadia Bernoussi (Morocco)
Professor, École Nationale d'Administration, Rabat, Morocco.
Marcelo Figueiredo (Brazil)
Professor, Faculty of Law, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, Brazil.
Charles Fombad (Cameroon)
Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Lech Garlicki (Poland)
Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Warsaw, Poland; Judge of the Constitutional Court of Poland (Rtd); Judge of the European Court of Human Rights (Rtd).
Mo Jihong (China/Chine)
Professor, Institute of Law, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, China.
Bertrand Mathieu (France)
Professor, Faculty of Law, Université de Paris I, Sorbonne, France.
Jae Hwang Jeong (South Korea)
Professor, Faculty of Law, Sunkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea


Zaid Al-Ali (Iraq)
Senior Adviser on Constitution Building, International IDEA, Cairo, Egypt.
Maria Lucia Amaral (Portugal)
Vice-President, Constitutional Court of Portugal; Professor, Faculty of Law, NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal.
César Landa Arroyo (Peru)
Professor, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú; Former President, Constitutional Court of Peru.
Eva Brems (Belgium)
Professor of Human Rights Law, Ghent University, Belgium.
Gianni Buquicchio (Italy)*
President of the Venice Commission
Surya Deva (India)
Associate Professor, School of Law, City University of Hong Kong; Editor-in-Chief, Business and Human Rights Journal.
Selin Esen (Turkey)
Professor, Department of Constitutional Law, Faculty of Law, Ankara University, Turkey.
Tom Ginsburg (USA)
Leo Spitz Professor of International Law and Deputy Dean, University of Chicago Law School; Research Professor, American Bar Foundation, USA.
Werner Heun (Germany)
Director, Institute for General Theory of State and Political Sciences, Faculty of Law, Georg August University, Göttingen, Germany.
Chong Jong-Sup (Korea)
Professor, Law School, Seoul National University; Senior advisor, Korean Association of Constitutional Law (KACL).
George Katrougalos (Greece)
Professor of Public Law, Democritus University, Greece; Member of the European Parliament.
Helle Krunke (Denmark)
Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Andrew Le Sueur (UK)
Professor of Constitutional Justice, University of Essex, United Kingdom.
Susanna Mancini (Italy)
Professor of Law, University of Bologna, Italy.
Mulela Margaret Munalula (Zambia)
Lawyer; Associate Professor of Human Rights, School of Law, University of Zambia.
Suzie Navot (Israel)
Chairperson, Israeli Association of Public Law; Professor of Constitutional Law, Striks Law School, College of Management Academic Studies (COMAS), Rishon Lezion, Israel.
Enyinna Nwauche (Nigeria)
Professor, Faculty of Law, Rhodes University, South Africa.
Francisco Javier García Roca (Spain)
Professor and Director, Department of Constitutional Law, Complutense University of Madrid (UCM); President Emeritus, Spanish Association of Constitutional Lawyers (ACE); Former Director, Parliamentary Law Institute (Congress of Deputies - UCM).
Harry Roque (Philippines)
Associate Professor, College of Law, University of The Philippines.
José María Serna (Mexico)
Researcher, Institute of Legal Research, National University of Mexico.
Elena Simina Tanasescu (Romania)
Professor of Public Law, Faculty of Law, University of Bucharest; Director, Centrul de Drept Constituţional şi Instituţii Politice (CDCIP), University of Bucharest, Romania.
Miyoko Tsujimura (Japan)
Professor, Faculty of Law, Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan.
Renáta Uitz (Hungary)
Professor of Comparative Constitutional Law, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
Grégoire Webber (Canada)
Canada Research Chair in Public Law and Philosophy of Law, Faculty of Law, Queen's University, Kingston Ontario, Canada.

Secretary General

David Bilchitz (South Africa)
Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Johannesburg; Director, South African Institute for Advanced Constitutional, Public, Human Rights and International Law (SAIFAC).

Deputy Secretary General & Treasurer

Norman Taku (South Africa)
Assistant Director, Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

* Mr Buquicchio, the President of the Venice Commission, is a member by right of the Executive Committee in accordance with the co-operation agreement between the Commission and the IACL.

In addition to the elected members listed above, the Executive Committee comprises the persons on whom the title of President Emeritus and Honorary President have been conferred.

Conferred Titles

Presidents Emeriti

Jovan Djordjevic † (Serbia)
Thomas Fleiner (Switzerland)
Professor Emeritus, University of Fribourg, Switzerland.
Patrice Gélard (France)
Senator of the French Republic.
Didier Maus (France)
Member, Conseil Constitutionnel of France.
Michel Rosenfeld (USA)
Justice Sydney L. Robins
Professor of Human Rights; Director of the Programme on Global and Comparative Constitutional Theory, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, New York City, USA.
Cheryl Saunders (Australia)
Laureate Professor, Law School, University of Melbourne, Australia.
Martin Scheinin (Finland)
Professor of Public International Law, European University Institute, Florence, Italy.

Honorary Presidents

Piet Akkermans † (Netherlands)
José Luis Cea Egaña (Chile)
Advocate; Professor of Law; Judge of the Constitutional Court of Chile (Rtd); Dean, Faculty of Law, Universidad San Sebastián, Chile (Rtd).
Cardoso da Costa (Portugal)
Professor, Faculty of Law, Coimbra University (Rtd); Former President, Constitutional Court of Portugal; President, Portuguese Association of Constitutional Law.
Louis Favoreu † (France)
Louis Henkin † (USA)
Yoichi Higuchi (Japan)
Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo and Tohoku University; Member of the Japan Academy.
George Kassimatis (Greece)
Emiritus Professor, University of Athens; Honorary Lawyer to the Constitutional Court of Greece; President of the Kytherian Foundation for Culture and Development (KIPA); President of the Trifyllis Foundation.
Naoki Kobayashi (Japan)
Salvador Lozada (Argentina)
Kostas Mavrias (Greece)
Professor Emeritus, University of Athens; President, Scientific Council of the Greek Parliament; President, Association of Greek Constitutionalists; Honorary President, International Association of Constitutional Law; Correspondent Member and Member, Scientific Council of the International Academy of Constitutional Law; Director, Laboratory of Constitutional Research, University of Athens.
Pavle Nikolic (Serbia)
Christian Starck (Germany)
Professor emeritus, University of Göttingen; Member, Academy of Sciences at Göttingen (President 2008 - 2012); Honorary Member, Korean Academy of Sciences; Corresponding Member, (Spanish) Real Academia de Legislación y Jurisprudencia.
Guiseppe de Vergottini (Italy)
Honorary President of the International Association of Constitutional Law; Emeritus Professor of Constitutional Law, University of Bologna, Italy; Former Promoter of the Italian Association of Constitutional Law; Past President, Academy of Sciences, Class of Moral Sciences of Bologna; Member, Administrative Committee of the Academy of Sciences; Member, Advisory Council of the Bologna Center of Johns Hopkins University.